Sunday, August 25, 2019

Random sampling in hypothesis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Random sampling in hypothesis - Essay Example Therefore, it is important to use the random sample to enable the ease of making the comparison in the null hypothesis of a population. Random sampling receives support from probability mathematics whose facts have been proved beyond doubt. Convenience sample does not use probability in arriving at the final sample. It is not suitable for assessing a population. Due to its ‘non-probability’ nature, convenience sampling is not suitable for studying the relationship between a population and sample. Random sampling gives a true representation of the population because it is not biased to any side. The use of Convenience samples makes researchers choose samples that they prefer but not a true representation of a population (Duttalo, 123). It gives a conclusion that is not true about the population. In statistics, bias should not be given to any part of a population. A true hypothesis should not have the bias. For example, in a data that contains a population of one hundred, it is wrong to select the first ten elements to represent the population. The best representative of the population should involve random sampling. Random sampling requires that one chooses any ten elements from the population without taking any consideration to the position.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Essay assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Assignment - Essay Example It is significant to appreciate that the lawfulness of the Education Act and its inherent relations to external affairs power. The federal state of Australia, as you are aware, is a member of Commonwealth parliament. Adoption of the Act by the federal government comes a week after passage of the same act by the Commonwealth assembly. The principal controversy follows inherent rejection of the Act by members of the opposition in our federal parliament. Just to recap the content of National Education Act 2015, it has a collection of relevant legislation to our current educational needs. The current National Education Acts clearly expounds details of an education institution and its role in the society. It identifies an education institution as any organization with a primary goal of providing instruction to pupils within the age of 5 years to 18 years in the relevant subjects such as mathematics and science literacy. It also encompasses the National Education Standards and defines it as the body of principles pertaining to the primary or secondary education. Ministry of Education must promulgate this body of principle to enable it take effect on any states education system (Zines, 2008). The inherent discussion centers on section 1(c) of the promulgated Act. This sub-section introduces the cause of disagreement in the past Act. It introduces the Commonwealth Education Proctor, as a representative of the Commonwealth to our education institutions including Kearneys Spring State School. The Commonwealth Educational Proctor does an oversight role on behalf of the Commonwealth on our education system and quality. It is mandatory, according to the Act, to have such an official in every Australian school (Zines, 2008). The Minister of Education has the power according to the Act of organizing for the appointment of Commonwealth Education Proctor in any member State of Commonwealth within all the respective

Friday, August 23, 2019

Pacific Northwest History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Pacific Northwest History - Essay Example The potential for conflict existed because of the agricultural bounties in this largely unexplored region such as thick coniferous forests that can support a large timber industry (ideal for shipbuilding too), lumber for commercial uses, an almost unlimited supply of fur, to include sea otters and the very rich fishing grounds, particularly the chinook salmon considered by many as â€Å"pink gold† that served as a crude currency for barter (Merchant 97). There was also another reason for staking a claim: geopolitics. America, flush from its relatively recent victory in its war for independence, was eager to spread its wings and this was expressed in its expansionist aspirations via a political philosophy of â€Å"Manifest Destiny†. The belief was that America was destined to expand across the North American continent, that is primarily westward from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific seaboard to include Canada, Cuba and Mexico, even parts of Central America. These territorial ambitions were advanced as obvious or readily apparent (manifest) and inevitable or inexorable (destiny) but this came into conflict with Great Britain that also explored this US region known as British Columbia. Viewed from this perspective, the joint occupancy served more as a diplomatic course to exploit the regions riches and avoid a war for resources of which the two countries fought briefly, between 1812-1815 known as the War of 1812. This particular war was actually part of the larger Napoleonic wars in Europe between Great Britain and Napoleon of France. This was actually a modus vivendi (a diplomatic accommodation of a temporary nature) despite the political, cultural, economic or cultural differences for the sake of expediency. Incentives for suing peace were very much evident because neither side could gain an upper hand either in territorial gains or military supremacy. The larger

Strategic Management Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Strategic Management Paper - Essay Example The strengths that are associated with the New York Times are based on the concept of diversity that has been incorporated into the main part of the platform. The main creation of news is one that is based on providing diversity at three levels, including the local, national and international realms. More important, the New York Times has expanded into a new market that is able to incorporate several concepts and applications that are a part of the main strengths. The main platform has developed into a news arena that is able to focus on several target markets while providing general news that was a part of the foundation of the company. The weaknesses that are associated with the New York Times are based on the sense of production and research and development that is associated with the company. Instead of creating a specific association with a specific type of production, there is a building into diversity that is all in one newspaper. The production is limited to the multimedia, trends and demands that are from the market. However, there isn’t a niche market or a specific association with diversifying the market in an alternative manner. At the same time, there is a broader range of the market to cover because of the move into globalization with a focus specifically that comes from New York. For the production to continue to work effectively, they will have to continue working toward diversifying the market, working with the changing media and building branches within the business. The internal factors that are associated with the strengths and weaknesses begin with the management. The management is able to provide strength because of the diversity of the company as well as the association with the global market. The internal management compliments this with changing the portfolio that is within the company through news reports and digital media. The association is based on diversity for local

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Absence Of Populism In Colombia Essay Example for Free

Absence Of Populism In Colombia Essay The term populism refers to a political system where the leaders appeal directly to the people and seek the support of social sectors that are not adequately represented in the political arrangements that exist. In a populist system, the leaders tend to enjoy the support of the mass as a result of mass mobilization. In many Latin American nations such as Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Chile, Panama, Peru and Mexico, one or more administrations have adopted populist policies (Dornbusch and Edwards, pg. 7). However, populism has failed to emerge in Colombia raising the question of why populism is not part of the Colombian society. Although populism in Colombian was promoted by the political leader Jorge Eliecer Gaitan who was assassinated in 1948, populism failed to emerge after his death. Gaitan assassinated ended populist leadership in Columbia . Up to date, Colombia has managed to adopt a non-populist political system. Although the current Colombian President Alvaro Uribe leadership is considered to have some elements common with many populists, he is not a populist. The issue of absence of populism in Colombia in a continent dominated by populism and the reasons behind the absence needs to be examined. President Alvaro Uribe non-populist leadership has been attributed to his lack of interest in mobilizing masses and activating supporters. These factors are important elements in populism. This paper will explore the reasons behind absence of populism in Colombia by tracing historical events in the country. The paper will first present a belief history of Colombia and important events during the leadership of Jorge Gaitan. His emergence as a political leader and the peoples’ reaction to his emergence will be explored as well as the reasons behind lack of populism emergence after his death . Finally, the paper will evaluate President Uribe non-populist policies and why/how he has made great efforts to make Colombia prosper in absence of populism and left tendencies. Discussion A Brief overview of populism Populism embraces political representation that challenges the democratic political society where a highly polarized concept of society exists. Populist regimes like the ones that have been witnessed in Latin American emphasize on the social divide between the privileged who have benefited from the existing political practices and the underprivileged who account for the excluded majority (Coniff, pg. 22). Populist leaders claim to represent this underprivileged group that comprises of the poor and promise social justice. As a result, the leaders tend to reject any political intermediation that aim at limiting and checking their political power. Some political analysts consider populism to be nationalistic, authoritarian and depend on social mobilization for support. Many populist regimes often destroy traditional parties. The populist manifestation indicates that the traditional market reforms in a populist regime are unable to sustain economic growth, reduce poverty, generate employment opportunities and reduce inequality. Although populist leaders use democratic means to assume into political power, they are involved in undermining democratic institutions once they get into office. History of Colombia and events at the time of populist Jorge Eliecier Gaitan The collapse of the Gran Colombia 1830 led to the emergence of Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador. Colombia became a republic in 1886. Two major political parties, the Liberal and Conservative parties emerged in Colombia due to the differences between the followers of two leaders Paula Santander and Simon Bolivar These two parties dominated the Colombian politics for a long time. Gaitan became achieved national prestige through his efforts of addressing the issues of concern of the peasants. For instance, he was involved in a Congressional investigation of worker’s revolt and strike in 1929 in Santa Marta and also wrote on the excesses of management and repressive intervention of the army in Colombia. This made Gaitan win great popular prestige and become a hero among the peasants. He joined the left wing of the Liberal party after 1930s and managed to win Congressional elections in March 1947. He continued to strengthen his position and increase his popularity by trying to reach the masses and giving them hope The Colombian society comprised of the privileged who held political offices and the poor who considered Gaitan to fight for their rights. Peasant populism and rural protests were witnessed since the 1930s. Gaitan became a charismatic leader of the Liberal party (Sharpless, pg,36). His popularity and claims to fight for the welfare of the masses attracted hundreds of thousands of low income Colombians and Union members in his political meetings. He was admired for denouncing moral, social and economic events that oppressed the masses which he promised to eliminate with cooperation and support from the people . His claim to champion the cause of the masses increased populism. The people, most of whom were peasants and low income earners were attracted by Gaitans leadership. For instance, the issue of land reforms which he seemed to address was of great concern to the people. For example, by mobilizing the masses to protest through the streets of Bogota in February 1948, Gaitan gained the support of the masses . He was assassinated two months later, an event that triggered the â€Å"La violencia†. This was characterized by confrontation between the Conservative and Liberal parties’ supporters and hostilities between classes. The Colombian society experienced violence and instability. Non-populism in Colombia after Gaitan’s death .The absence of populist regimes in Colombia in the 1930s and 1940s as well as the political instability that was witnessed in Colombia (Dix, pg. 342). After Gaitan’s assassination made it impossible for the political leaders to put into place populist regime in Colombia. Uncontrolled human confrontation in Bogota spread to the country side where bands were organized to create terror. La Violencia is estimated to have led to the deaths of more than 200,000 people over duration of eighteen years, the 1948 – 1958 periods was bloodiest . One of the most powerful guerilla group in Colombia, and known as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) was the product of this conflict. The period after Gaitan’s death was marked by lack of hope in the masses and the political society. Armed confrontation was characterized by rebellions and riots between 1948 and 1966(Hylton, pg. 40). Because populism requires leaders to mobilize the masses, violence drove Colombia into a politically unstable nation. The political instability that was experienced in the country made it impossible for the political leaders to secure leadership through populism. There was mass social frustration due to the killings and displacement of a large number of people. Those who had believed that Jorge Gaitan was the only hope for improving the lives of the masses were disappointed. In Bogota and the Mariano Ospina’s government struggled to restore order in Colombia. However, the rural violence that was witnessed triggered a state of undeclared civil war and violence spread throughout the country. Only the southernmost parts of Marino and Caribbean coastal area were spared. The violence phenomenon became complex and was characterized by sheer rural banditry as well as partisan political rivalry (Roldan, pg. 93). The political rivalry undermined the emergence of populism because this period of internal disorder led to the refusal by successive Colombian governments to give in to the peoples’ demand for social economic change. The repressive nature of the Ospina government undermined efforts of political leadership to participate in political meetings or engage in efforts that could increase one’s popularity but undermine the government. Violence and instability continued (Palacios, pg. 72). For example, the government on March 1949 banned all public meetings and had all Liberal governors leave their positions. These measures were being taken to restore order in the country. Furthermore, the government in 1949 ordered the closure of Congress. This meant that the political system in Colombia could no longer function as usual. The rural police forces intensified efforts to fight the Liberals and the belligerents. As a result, the liberals protest led to the liberals’ eventual resignation form their positions and as a result, protests by the Liberals continued. The failure by the Liberal party to contest during the presidential elections had Laureano Gomez, a Conservative candidate take over office in 1950. Gomez was the leader of a reactionary faction and preferred authority and order. The constitution that was drafted under Gomez’s’ guidance in 1953 was expected to expand the powers of departmental governors and enhance presidential autonomy. In order to contain the mounting violence and to prevent the regaining of power by the liberals, Gomez tried to curtail avail liberties and to acquire broad powers. In addition, the independent labor unions were removed and the congressional elections were held without any opposition. Other measures that the Gomez administration put into place included the control of courts by the executive, censoring of the press. Gomez also directed his repression against the Liberal opposition. There was relative economic prosperity during this time due to the expansion of the export markets and foreign investment increase. However, Gomez lost support due to military establishment, attacks on moderate conservatives. Gomez illness in 1951 had Roberto Urdaneta become the acting president. General Gustavo Rojas took over power in 1953 and military leadership that was witnessed in the country continued to undermine political participation and democracy in the country. In the 1960s, armed conflicts whereby left-wing insurgents, government forces and right-wing paramilitaries were witnessed in Colombia. There was lack of civil authority and public order and intense military operations were undertaken to counter the opposition. Rojas was however removed from power in 1957 leading to the restoration of civilian rule after some moderate Liberals and Conservatives formed a bipartisan coalition known as the National Front. Alberto Lleras Camargo served as Colombia’s president upto 1962. All these events made it difficult for populist regimes to emerge again in Colombia and up to date, Colombian leadership is still non-populist. Alvaro Uribe’s policies and non-populism The absence of populism in Colombia is unique in a continent where populist politics are still evident today . The current Colombian President Alvaro Uribe policies are not populist despite having some elements of populism. President Uribes is now in his second term in office. His policies have not aimed at increasing mass support for his government. In populist regimes, government policies tend to be implemented in a manner that tries to win the support of the masses. Since Uribe assumed into power, he has not advocated for policies that aim at addressing the needs of all the citizens. Instead, he has focused on improving economic development and improving security in the country. The main reason why Uribe is not populist can therefore be attributed to the fact that he has not made efforts to mobilize masses and cultivate supporters. Rather than focusing on efforts to uplift the poor in order to gain the support of the masses, President Uribe policies emphasize on improving economic growth and security. As a result, since his elections into office in 2002, he has received high approval ratings due to his policies that have promoted sustained economic growth, security and continuous implementation of sound social programs. The domestic security policy that Uribe has adopted plays a critical role in promoting democratic representation in governance. The policy was unveiled in 2003 and the efforts by Uribe’s administration to deepen democracy and strengthen democratic representation have ensured that democratic institutions have not been undermined to create populism. After being elected into office and inaugurated on 7th August 2002, President Uribe introduced radical policies to improve security. Insecurity in Colombia due to violence has for decades undermined economic and social development. President Uribe is a tough conservative whose political life has focused in fighting rebels and illegal armed groups in the country which cause the instability. The landslide victory for the second term provided him with adequate time to address the issue of drug trafficking and armed groups. The democratic security policy seeks to cater for the wellbeing of all Colombians. (The Uribe Administrations Democratic Security and Defense Policy, pg 1). The Colombian government has been working together with the US to fight drug trafficking groups and leftist insurgent groups by consolidating state control so that the country is not a sanctuary of perpetrators of violence, terrorists and drug traffickers (Kirk, pg 52). This has protected the entire population from illegal drug trade and victimization by illegal armed groups. The government social programs have been well planned and coordinated unlike in populist regimes. The programs receive consistent and great financial support from the government in order to increase social and economic development across the country. In other populist regimes in Latin America, social programs are poorly coordinated, fail to reach the targeted beneficiaries and receive huge funds during the election period. This has not been the case for Colombia. Uribe’s social programs to improve the living standards of the people by reducing inequalities has minimized sectoral and class conflicts in Colombia (US Central Intelligence,np) Agency. Populism is established when inequalities are not eliminated hence they create a social divide between the privileged and the underprivileged. In addition, populism is promoted when a large group of people who feel that they very minimal benefits from economic development support populists who promise to improve their welfare. In Colombia, the social divide has been addressed by the economic policy that has been implemented to improve income distribution. The benefits of the social programs reach the expected beneficiaries. The element of clientelism that still exists in Colombia prevents enlarged political participation and mobilization. The political system is supported by faithfulness and loyalty and together with the development of professional class of politicians who are committed to intermediating between the voters and the state has made it difficult for populists to succeed. The government has accepted limits and checks in governance and intermediation between the state and the civil society is possible. Uribe’s leadership has not in any way attempted to mobilize the masses in efforts to overcome inequality and poverty. The efforts to improve leadership and promote democracy in the government oppose the utilization of state resources for personal interests or to maximize political support. This is a clear indication that Uribe is not a populist. However, his efforts to have the constitution amended so that he may run for a third term in office has made him resemble the populist presidents who undermine traditional institutions of democracy. President Uribe has shown great commitment in maintaining democratic institutions and addressing the needs of Colombia as a nation rather than focusing on issues that increase the support of the masses. Why and how President Uribe efforts to make Colombia prosperous President Uribe has been making great efforts to make Colombia a prosperous nation free of populism and leftist tendencies. Populism and leftist tendencies undermine democratic institutions and result to political instability that compromises prosperity of a nation. Political stability is meant to support economic prosperity which improves the living standards of the poor. This narrows the social divide that allows populism to contribute to low economic and social development. For instance, the presence of leftist armed groups for decades has made it impossible for the government and the people to increase economic prosperity. The primary groups that are considered to be a threat to Colombia’s stability and peace are the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the ELN guerillas. These groups rely on criminal activities to generate funds. War and drug trade have derailed economic prosperity in Colombia for a long time (Livingstone, pg. 21). This has turned Colombia into one of the world’s largest center for drug trafficking. President Uribe democratic security policy has improved both the national security and economic growth due to stability. In Uribe’s administration government policies, lack of populism is clear . This has been achieved by ensuring that market reforms move towards sustaining economic growth, reduction of poverty and unemployment as well as a reduction in inequality. Uribe’s economic policy has been able to move away from economic populism where emphasis is placed on the risk of deficit finance and inflation, reaction of economic agents on non-market policies and external constraints. Rather than mobilize the masses through the implementation of social programs that never benefit the people, Uribe’s government has developed and implemented sound social programs that distribute resources equally and have the living standards of the underprivileged improved. In other Latin American nations, social programs are implemented by the political leaders to win the support of the masses. Unfortunately, the people never benefit from the programs because a large proportion of the financial resources put aside to support the programs is either wasted or embezzled. The allocation of resources to support government programs has been consistent, an issue that has improved economic growth in Colombia. Transparency and democracy ensure that leaders are responsible and accountable. By improving the living standards of the people across the nation, Uribe’s leadership has made it difficult for political leaders to become populists by claiming to represent the underprivileged. The presence of leftist groups in Colombia has led to blood shed, prosperity of the drug trade and social injustice. These groups have been involved in the drug trade and in the rural areas impose their rules on the people. The domestic security policy has aimed at defeating armed groups such as the ELN and FARC. The president has expressed concern that some of the major security threats in Colombia include narcotics trade and terrorism. He has therefore taken a hard line stance against guerillas. Together with the assistance from its neighbors and the US, the Colombian government has managed to force out rebels from Colombia’s cities and towns. For example, the government has succeeded in fighting the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. The need to restore peace in the country and invest in improving the welfare of the people has become a priority. For example, the security program that is implemented is expected to increase judicial action against the perpetrators of crimes with high social impact, restore peace, reduce human rights violation as well as the dismantle terrorist or leftist groups. The security policy is expected to demobilize illegal groups, increase intelligence capacity, engage civilians in leadership and increase defense spending. Colombia is engaged in regional economic cooperation as a means of improving regional economic growth, political stability and security. For instance, President Uribe has been able to put aside political differences that Colombia has had with its neighbours such as Venezuela to pursue economic progress. Furthermore, because the neigbouring nations are concerned about the presence of illegal armed groups in Colombia, bilateral relations have made it possible for the nations to fight leftist groups together. Regional economic growth has had positive impact on the Colombian economy. President Uribe has been working hard to strengthen government institutions that increase freedom. For example, in 2004, President Uribe managed to engage citizens throughout the country in governance after he established a government present in about 1,099 municipalities in Colombia. President Alvaro Uribe supports free trade policies and has attempted to fight internal forces that cause political instability which affect the country’s economic and social development for decades. He has strong domestic policies that support government programs that empower people economically. For example, his administration supports economic cooperation with its neigbours. Diplomatic ties with the neighbours in Latin America has been supported, economic development supported and efforts to combat leftist tendencies improved. The Colombian government has been involved in expanding the country’s participation in the international trade, strengthening the rule of law, promoting good governanace, protecting human rights and reducing poverty (US Central Intelligence Agency, np). Conclusion Populism has been a common element in Latin American nations whereby the leaders attempt to win the support of the masses through mobilization. Countries such as Chile, Peru and Brazil have had populist political parties dominate political leadership. However, Colombia is a Latin American country that has managed to maintain non-populism since the death of the populist Jorge Gaitan in 1948. The current Colombian President Alvaro Uribe policies have shown that he is not a populist. In addition, great efforts by Uribe to make Colombia prosperous free of populism and leftist groups have been successful. Works Cited Conniff, Michael. Populism in Latin America. University of Alabama Press, 1999 Dix, Robert. The Varieties of Populism; the case of Colombia. Western. Political Quarterly, 31, 334-351, 1978 Dornbusch, Rudiger and Edwards, Sebastian. Macroeconomics of Populism in Latin America, University of Chicago Press, 1991 Hylton, Forrest. Evil Hour in Colombia. New York: Verso Books, 2006 Kirk, Robin . More Terrible Than Death: Drugs, Violence, and Americas War in Colombia. United States: PublicAffairs, 2004 Livingstone, Grace. Inside Colombia: Drugs, Democracy, and War. Rutgers University Press, 2004 Palacios, Marco. Between Legitimacy and Violence: A History of Colombia, 1875– 2002. United States of America: Duke University Press, 2006 Roldan, Mary. Blood and Fire; La Violencia in Antioquia, Colombia, 1946-1953. Duke University Press, 2002 Sharpless, Richard. Gaitan of Colombia: a political biography. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1978 The Uribe Administrations Democratic Security and Defense Policy. Embassy of Colombia. Accessed on April, 29 2010from http://www. presidencia. gov. co/sne/visita_bush/documentos/security. pdf Urrutia, Miguel. On the Absence of Economic Populism in Colombia. University of Chicago Press, 1991 US Central Intelligence Agency. Colombia. Accessed on April 29, 2010 from; https://www. cia. gov/library/ /the /co. html

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

History Essays Hitler Power German

History Essays Hitler Power German Hitler Power German Choose any one reason from the list and explain how it contributed to Hitler’s rise to power. The Enabling Act One of the key events that contributed Hitler’s rise in power was the passing of the enabling act. The Enabling Act was a direct result of the burning Reichstag building, shortly after Hitler became chancellor. By this time, Hitler was already a standing member of the German Workers Party (DAP) and had adapted the name and the aims of the party to blend with his own thoughts and beliefs. He also had managed a failed putsch in Munich, 1923, which is universally known as the beer hall putsch. A scandalous trail followed resulting in Hitler being sentenced to five years in prison (but was released after only one year of service) which was to be carried out at Landsberg Castle. Here Hitler composed he autobiography: Mein Kampf which detailed his aims and beliefs for Germany’s future under his reign. As a result (of many contributing factors), during the July 1932 elections, Hitler and the Nazis received the majority of 230 seats in the Reichstag. After the Wall Street Crash, the unemployment leaves rocketed and several Germans were now supporting extremist parties, such as the Nazis and the Communists (KPD), because they promised change as well as stability – explaining the Nazis rise in popularity in the July 1932 elections. Courses implemented by the government to cease the country’s suffering had not yet taken effect. Because this slight political obstruction, Hitler to agree to a coalition with President Paul Hindenburg and the Weimar government and during January 1933 he [Hitler] was appointed the chancellor of Germany. One of Hitler’s aspirations was to become the sole leader of Germany (or Der Fuhrer), but before he could reach his aspired goal, he had to conquer the obstacles in his way. First he had to gain total control of the Reichstag and the government, and absolve it (if possible); he had to eliminate the German Communists as well as gaining the loyalty and support of the German Army and the expulsion of Hindenburg. Once all of these were achieved, Hitler would then be Der Fuhrer. Hitler could accomplish one of these aims was to gain full control of the Reichstag, and managed this by instigating the Enabling Act. The Enabling Act was an article set up by a committee at Versailles in 1919 which said that if one of the members of the Reichstag wished to relinquish their rights and abilities as members of parliament they could vote upon the enabling act, and if two-thirds of the majority was reached in favour of those who wished to pass the act, the responsibilities of the Reichstag could be passed on to the Chancellor (a the time) giving them the power to pass laws, hold trials, make major decisions ect .by themselves. Passing this act was necessary for Hitler to gain power, not only over the Reichstag; but over Germany as well. If he didn’t control the Reichstag, he had no power to do anything: any laws he wished to employ had to be voted on by the parliament, even with Hitler’s 193 seats in November 1932, Hitler didn’t hold the majority of seats. Therefore to gain two-thirds of the majority needed, Hitler had to exonerate himself of the competition and gain [more] support. In February 1933, two days before the Enabling Act elections, the Reichstag building was burnt down. Near by the scene of the crime was a communist supporter, Van der Lubber, painted with evidence that suggest he caused it. After a guilty confession from Van der Lubber taking all the blame for starting the fire, Hitler went to President Hindenburg and convinced him to activate Article 48 (somewhat of a martial law which when stimulated allowed the president the facility to make and pass laws in addition to handing out punishment without going through the Reichstag or parliament). Using this, Hitler persuaded Hindenburg to outlaw the Communists, (who just happen to be one of the Nazis principal rivals in the Reichstag. Many men and women were imprisoned; members of the communist parties as well as people who were not communists, but were a political threat to Hitler and the Nazis. At the next Reichstag elections the Nazis received 44% of seats, but even without opposition of the communists the Nazis still didn’t have two-thirds of the majority of the votes that they needed. Then there was the concordat of March 1933. The Catholic Pope was worried about the state of the church and how it would be run if Hitler took power. Seeing that Hitler had a possibility of gaining power the power he sought after, the pope wanted to assure the Catholic stability inside Germany. The concordat secured the Catholic Centre Party’s support to Hitler in the next Enabling Act vote, at the same time, promising that when Hitler came to power he would leave the church to run itself and is exempt from any measures the Nazi Party might execute. With the support of the Catholic Centre Party, the Nazis held the two-thirds of the majority needed. On March the 23rd 1933, the Enabling Act was passed with 444 votes against 94. Hitler had achieved goal number one: absolving the Reichstag. After the Enabling Act was approved, Hitler was well on his was to power. He only had to gain the support of the German Army and eliminate Hindenburg. These were both achieved by the absolution of the SA, lead by Ernst Roehm, in June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives or Kristalnacht. The army were highly trained but were small in number, whereas the SA were a large number (2 million) of men who were untrained. The German Army vowed their elegance provided that the SA was removed. Leaders, including Ernst Roehm were brought to Hitler’s chateau in the mountains and killed. The troops that once made up the German Army were all spread out between different units. In August 1934, Hindenburg died of old age, leaving Hitler (as chancellor) to take his place, and declared that Germany no longer needed a chancellor and expelled the position altogether making himself Der Fuhrer of Germany. Therefore, it is shown that the Enabling Act, completing two of his four objectives making him Der Fuhrer, was a major contributor to Hitler’s rise in power. Using some of the causes in the list explain how both long-term and short-term causes contributed to Hitler’s rise to power. [10 marks] There are multiple causes of Hitler’s rise to power, including both long term and short term causes. These causes are interconnected as often a long term cause (a cause which acts over a number of years) will act as a foundation which leads to a short term cause (a cause which acts over a number of days, weeks or months) which triggers an event. This relationship between causes means that without one, another may not occur and therefore all causes, both long and short term, are necessary for an event to happen the way it did. The Treaty of Versailles is a very important long tern cause of Hitler’s rise to power because it motivated Hitler to seek that power. Opposition to the Treaty was one of the central uniting policies of the Nazi party. The Treaty of Versailles were extreme on Germany and it people. This is what flamed a hatred for the Allies [the Big Three] in several Germans. The terms of the treaty happened to throw the delicate economic balance of Germany crumble. During the years following the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, the German civilians faced a series of strikes, putsches and invasions (mainly from France and Belgium). All of which contributed to Hitler’s rise to power. In the early 1920s, the German economy was in distress and the currency had collapsed by 1923. Hitler saw the public’s discontent as his opportunity to steal power. On November 8, he led his â€Å"army† to a beer hall in Bavaria where local government leaders were holding a meeting. The Nazis quickly captured the politicians and Hitler put himself in charge. The group then marched on the former Bavarian War Ministry building when the police opened fire. During the riot that followed, the man beside Hitler was killed as he pulled his leader to the ground. The failure of the â€Å"Beer Hall Putsch† brought the Nazi party and Hitler into national publicity. Hitler was arrested and, after a 24-day trial, sentenced to five years in Landsberg fortress. The name is misleading, because the â€Å"fortress† was more like one of those country-club type prisons where white-collar criminals are sometimes sent. Hitler received a steady stream of visitors and presents and was treated more like he was on a picnic outing than serving as an inmate. Hitler’s incarceration was that it allowed him to dictate his views to his friend and cell-mate, Rudolf Hess. Those views would later be published as the book Mein Kampf (My Struggle), a volume that to this day remains a bible for racists, anti-Semites, and sociopaths. The failure of the â€Å"Beer Hall Putsch† taught Hitler valuable lessons that he used to win and hold power later. One obvious lesson was not to get into any more battles with an enemy that was larger and better armed. Hitler also decided that his best chance to gain power would be through the use of legal methods rather than force. The Weimar Republic was devastated by Wall Street Crash of October 1929 and the Great Depression that followed. The Crash had a devastating impact on the American economy but because America had propped up the Weimar Republic with huge loans in 1924 (the Dawes Plan) and in 1929 (the Young Plan), what happened to the American economy had to impact the Weimar Republics economy. Both plans had loaned Weimar money to prop up the country’s economy especially after the experiences of hyperinflation in 1923. America demanded the loans be paid back, because their economy was being held by a thread. Unemployment sky-rocketed and the hyperinflation became worse. So many Germans needed money that wasn’t available. The money was required for food, heating a home, clothes etc. With no obvious end to their plight under the Weimar regime, it is not surprising that those who saw no end to their troubles turned to the more extreme political parties in Germany the Nazi and Communist Parties. In 1928, the Nazi Party had nearly gone bankrupt as a result of the spending on street parades etc. which had cost the party a great deal. Bankruptcy would have automatically excluded them from politics they were saved by a right wing businessman called Hugenburg who owned a media firm in Germany. He financially bailed them out. In the 1930 Reichstag election, the Nazis gained 143 seats this was a vast improvement on their previous showing. Hitler only expected about 50 to 60 seats. A senior Nazi official claimed that what was a disaster for Weimar was good, very good for us. In the July 1932 Reichstag election, the Nazis gained 230 seats making them the largest party in the Reichstag. In the same year, Hitler had challenged Field Marshall von Hindenburg for the presidency. Such a move in 1928 would have been laughable but in the presidential election Hitler gained 13,400,000 votes to Hindenburg’s 19,360,000. The leader of the Communists gained 3,700,000. By any showing, Hitler’s achievement in this presidential election was extremely good for a politician whose party was on the verge on bankruptcy just 4 years earlier but it also showed the mood of the German people in the early 1930’s. In the November 1932 Reichstag election, the Nazi Party dipped somewhat to 196 seats but this still put them way ahead of their nearest rivals, the Social Democrats on 121 seats. The Communist Party continued its steady climb from 77 seats the 1928 election, to 89 in the July 1932 election to 100 in the November one. It is clearly shown that without one of these causes; however small it may seem, another much larger event may not have occurred: a domino effect. Without the Treaty of Versailles, Hitler would have not had anything to base his revisionist ideals from, without theses ideals he would not have been able to rise to the top of the Nazi party to the level of superiority he held in 1923. Without the Great Depression of 192, Hitler would not have had the opportunity to hold the Munich Beer Hall Putsch. Without the putsch, Hitler would not have been sent to prison, he would not have received the attention he was given at his trial, he his ideals would not have been broadcast to all of Germany and around Europe, and Mien Kampf may not have been written, without Mien Kampf, Hitler would have to find other ways of spreading his beliefs and so wouldn’t have reached the level of popularity held by 1929. Without the level of popularity Hitler wouldn’t have been able to take advantage of the opportunity the Wall Street Crash represented, and wouldn’t have been Chancellor (without the unstable nature created by the financial depression, the people would not have needed to look to the extremist groups for stability and change, popularity would have risen at a slight rate, if not fallen). If Hitler had never become chancellor, there would have been no opportunity to enforce the Enabling Act and without said power Hitler may not have become Der Fuhrer at all. All of the causes are interconnected and therefore without one, another may lose its rank of importance or simply not occur. Was any one of these reasons more important than the others in Hitler’s rise to power? Explain. Some causes are more important than others. However many of the causes are reliant on other causes. For instance: the great depression made the German people lose faith in moderate parties like the Social democrats. This resulted in a polarization of German voting habits, meaning that extremist parties gained many votes from people who hoped that they would bring change. The Nazi party gained exceptionally from this phenomenon; they went from having 12 seats in the Reichstag (1928) to 230 (July 1932) to 288 (March 1933). In general, as unemployment rose rapidly and the economic and social situation in Germany deteriorated the Nazi vote share increased. This popularity of the Nazis with the public eventually lead to the decision by von Papen and Hindenburg to appoint Hitler Chancellor, which in turn gave Hitler the opportunity to pass the Enabling law. This shows a definite correlation between the effects of the great depression and Hitler gaining power in Germany. The Treaty of Versailles was an important event in Hitler’s rise to power. Perhaps not directly important, there was no quick outcome from the treaty that lead to Hitler becoming Der Fuhrer; instead the Treaty of Versailles provided and built up the base upon which Hitler expanded his revisionist ideas. It was mainly the specifics of the treaty which were important: the war guilt clause 231, the removal of all colonies and states (such as the Sudetenland), the Polish Corridor, the illegalisation of the Anschluss, the demilitarisation of the Rhineland, the limits placed upon the main German armed forces (no air force, no tanks, no more then 100,000 voluntary men ect.), as well as the demand for  £6.6 billion to be paid in reparations to the allied forces, and so on. These demands created for Hitler and the rest of Germany points to focus on which could be blamed for the down fall of their country. The war guilt clause fostered hatred within Germany where it was believed that the war could have been won. The removal of the Border States and colonies created a nationwide push for Lebensraum – the belief that Germany people deserved living space to the East in order to support the population. Demilitarisation pushed upon the country meant that it was a wish if many for the country to be strong once again. And the demand for reparations was ignored by Germany to start an attempt to prove that such a payment was impossible. This lead to the economic depression, this was not the only reason for the rise in Nazi votes. The Nazis made significant changes to their policies during the years 1924-1929, including the spread of the party across the nation, a focus on propaganda and the setting up of other organizations like the youth league. The Nazis also began to focus their message at the middle classes, which paid off when the middle classes were badly affected by the depression and began looking for new voting options. Had the Nazis not become more organized in the years preceding the depression, they would no have been able to benefit from it. Therefore the Nazi reorganization is an important cause of Hitler’s rise to power. There are also other causes of Hitler’s rise to power which had an impact on the depression. The terms of the Treaty of Versailles made the effects of the depression in Germany much worse, because Germany, forced to pay  £6.6 billion in monetary repayments and left with a weak economy, became reliant on US loans. Therefore when the Wall Street Crash threw the US into an economic slump, Germany was dragged with it. Then came the Munich Beer Hall Putsch of 1923. This was where Hitler and General Luddendof organised a march upon Berlin to take power from the Bavarian Weimar Republic Government. One factor facing them, however, was the lack of support from Ritter Von Kahr, the Bavarian Leader who wanted Bavaria to be separate form Germany. So on November 8th 1923, Hitler and the Nazis SA stormed a public beer hall in Munich where meeting of Von Kahr’s was taking place. Hitler demanded Von Karh’s support, which was given, only to be retracted the next day. Regardless, Hitler marched on Berlin with his storm troopers, but was stopped by the German Police Force. The Munich Putsch is an extremely important even because of its eventual effects. Hitler’s trail was broadcast on national radio, and what he had said in his own defence was printed and could be read by people all over Germany, this was the first time this had been possible for the Nazis, while Hitler was in prison, he wrote a manuscript: Mien Kampf, which documented the man’s beliefs and plans for the future of Germany under his own rule, again this book was printed and was a best seller inside Germany as well as throughout the rest of Europe and although was banned and forced to disperse; come the end of the trial, the Nazi party was allowed to regroup in February 1925,just more than a year after he [Hitler]tried to overthrow the government. Also another major outcome of the Munich Putsch was that Hitler decided that any attempted to take power had to be through being voted into power; he also knew form that point on that he would need to gain support of the German Army before he did anything else. Therefore it can be said that this is probably one of the more important events, as it shows what Hitler’s aims were in his future actions. The Munich Putsch and its effects (especially Mein Kampf) showed Germany and the rest of Europe, Hitler’s oratory skills, his personality and his aims for leadership. These turned out to be major factors in Hitler’s rise to power, because it was these mediums that Hitler conveyed his beliefs and politics to the people of Germany (as well as through propaganda, and so on) The Wall Street Crash of 1929 again created an opportunity for change. Money lent to Germany by the USA through the Dawes and Young Plan had rebuilt the German economy, however it still relied on the support of the USA to preserve the strength of the economy. So when the monetary support was withdrawn, the economies in both countries failed. This again caused the people to turn towards extremist parties such as the Nazis to answer their problems. The elections of July 1934 saw the largest results for the Nazis ever, 230 seats in the Reichstag parliament building. Therefore, this can be seen as and important event in aiding Hitler to his rise in power, as it was by this event that Hitler’s popularity was once again increased after the golden years of the Weimar government (1924 – 1933), however possibly not as important as some of the other events might seem, being more directly involved with Hitler’s rise to power. The final decision by Von Papen and Hindenburg to make Hitler the chancellor was obviously an important event, although Hitler had much support from the public following the Wall Street Crash and main failure of the Weimar Republic. Hindenburg looked down on the man who he labelled a â€Å"jumped up corporal†, and refused to instil Hitler as chancellor. However after being convinced by the public and (apparently) his son, Hindenburg came to see that appointing a popular man as chancellor might increase the popularity of the Weimar Government, and therefore Hitler was appointed. An important event to be sure, not as important as, perhaps as the Enabling Act election, however a major step in Hitler’s rise to power. The Enabling Act was a major factor in Hitler’s rise to power. The Enabling Act was where Hitler gained two-thirds of the votes in the Reichstag in order to assume the responsibilities of the Reichstag itself. In order for the majority of the votes to belong to the Nazis, they had to purge themselves of their opposition which included the communists and catholic influences. Communists were exonerated through the Reichstag fire, an event that was blamed on the communists and caused the party to become illegal. This removed the threat they posed to the Nazis, however the majority vote could remove this easily, and so this lead to the concordat with the Catholic Centre Party. The concordat ensured that if and when Hitler took power the church would remain as it was, in return for their support for the Enabling Act election and for the future. It was in the way that the Enabling Act election was achieved and as demonstrated the importance by the number of aspects included, this is one of the more important factors as the Enabling Act, Hitler gained the full power of the Reichstag parliament using only democratic means: he defeated the Weimar Republic with their own system. As seen, the importance of an event cannot easily be measured, some events seem to have almost no importance, however without them, another much more relevant event may not have occurred or held the same impact, and a good example of this is the Night of the Long Knives; where Hitler commanded all the generals and captains of the SA be assassinated. Alone the action seems to have no relevance, but it is known that Hitler had these men killed to gain the support of the German Army, without it Hitler could never have become Der Fuhrer of Germany Bibliography Germany 1919-45 – Brooman, Josh GCSE modern world history (second edition) Walsh – Murray, Hodder Modern world history to GCSE OXFORD – Leonard, Mason Encyclopaedia Britannica GCSE History www.britannica.com www.schoolhistory.co.uk www.spartucushistory.com www.bbcschools.co.uk/bitsizegcse/history/mwh/

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Communicating in Health and Social Care Organisations

Communicating in Health and Social Care Organisations Communicating in Health and Social Care Organisations L1. Be able to explore how communication skills are used in health and social care 1.1 Apply relevant theories of communication to health and social care contexts 1.2 Use communication skills in a health and social care context 1.3 Review methods of dealing with inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals in health and social care settings 1.4 Analyse the use of strategies to support users of health and social care services with specific communication needs There is a multitude of theories that can be used in the communication of health and social care contexts. Gerald Egan developed a theory of communication using an acronym in order to build the Components of communication with others. This was outlined in his book called ‘The Skilled  Helper’. The acronym he developed is, S O L E R. SOLER is often utilized to guide health and social care workers when dealing with vulnerable individuals and also acts as an described technique for active listening. In the sort of nonverbal communication, Soler theory can be valuable when helping another individual as it can make the other party feel cared for, involved in what is going on and feel respected and read. Heavily used in counselling and other areas of Health and Social Care, the theory can also be read by anyone who cares to become a more serious listener. Tuckman’s theory of group formation is essential for health and social care as in most health and social care settings group work is used. This always seems to work and people communicate very well. According to his 5 group interaction stages, teams can get stronger, more productive and efficient. His stage s include Forming The initial stage of team development during which people have not yet gelled together. Everybody is busy discovering their spot in the team, sizing each other up, and asking themselves why they are here. Storming People start to view themselves as part of a squad. Many conflicts or confrontations among team members occur in this stage resulting in some loss of focal point. Norming – At this point, team members begin to arrive together, developing procedures, establishing ground rules, deciding who does what, and how things will be managed. This form is known by a sense of togetherness. Performing This is the last point where the increased focus on both the task, and on team relationships, combines to provide working together well. Public presentation is given up through people working effectively together. And characteristics of effective teamwork will help teams sustain performance. Communication has an essential role in any action that aims to improve health. It is difficult to imagine how a message could be delivered to promote healthy choices if we could not communicate. The communication process is a multi-dimensional transaction influenced by a variety of factors and as a transitional process and in a health context, it is an important part of health and social care contexts. Communication according to Minardi and Reily (1997) is an essential, instrumental and purposeful process. The communication transaction is one of sharing information using a set of common rules (Northouseand Northouse 1998). The basic representative model of communication is commonly conceived as a one-way flow process consisting of a sender, message and receiver. In accession to this, other variables such s understanding by that receiver and feedback to the communicator can also be included. These last two variables are important for health communication as they imply two-way communication, thus making a motion away from the traditional concept of one-way communication towards multi-style communication. Communication in health takes place on many stages, including individual, group, organization, community or mass-media. Communication in health can be defined in much the same way as communication has generally been defined: a transactional operation. The primary dispute in communicating health is that the focus is not a universal one, but one specific to health data. Kreps (2003) summarizes the increase of ‘health’ to the definition of communication as a ‘resource’ that allows health messages (for example prevention, risk or awareness) to be applied in the education and avoidance of ill health. This broad definition incorporates the fact that health communication can take place at many levels and embodies a holistic access to health promotion. In order to deal with inapporiate communications, a successful two-way communication process depends on carefully conveying the message so that the listener understands exactly what we mean as non-verbal behavior may carry more meaning than words.Wen it comes for Speaking, clarifying the meaning with body language, facial expressions and voice to support the words is essential. Litening makes the communication process easier, attention should be given to the speaker, ad letting them finish before respond.The communication channels used is crucial in avoiding inapporiate communications, Face-to-face communication offers the best chance of full understanding, but the written word provides a more permanent record. A phone conversation restricts the effectiveness of body language, but notice tone of voice and speed of delivery, allows to pick up anger or annoyance.Pictures or symbols can be used to clarify communication, especially if either the listener or speaker has a specific commun ication difficulty and expressing emotion or explaining complex issues should be avoided. In order to cater to people with specific communication needs, this can be divided into 2 sections such as assistive technology and human assistance. Within technology softwares and support devices can be used to support people.This can include voice activated softwares, text phones, loop systems and hearing aids.When it comes for human assistance, advocates, translators, interpreters depending on the requirements can be used for communication purposes and to reduce communication barriers I health and social care sectors. L2.Understand how various factors influence the communication process in health and social care 2.1 Explain how the communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors 2.2 Explain how legislation, charters and codes of practice impact on the communication process in health and social care 2.3 Analyse the effectiveness of organisational systems and policies in promoting good practice in communication 2.4 Suggest ways of improving the communication process in a health and social care setting Communicating across cultures is challenging. Each culture has set rules that its members take for granted. Few of us are mindful of our own cultural biases because cultural imprinting begins at a very early age. And while some of a cultures knowledge, principles, opinions, values, phobias, and anxieties are taught explicitly, most of the info is absorbed subconsciously. Within Health and Social care context, intercultural communication is a field of study of importance because of increased globalization and also because of growing workforce who are different ethnically and culturally. Cultures provide people with ways of rememberingways of experiencing, listening, and interpreting the world. Hence the same speech can imply different things to people from different cultures, even when they utter the same speech communication. When the languages are different, and the translation has to be practiced to communicate, the potential for mistakes increases. Stella Ting-Toomey describes thr ee ways in which culture interferes with effective cross-cultural understanding. First is what she calls cognitive constraints. These are the frames of reference or world views that offer a backdrop that all fresh data is comparable to or introduced into. Second are behavior constraints. Each culture has its own regulations about proper behavior which affect verbal and gestural communication. Whether one sees the other individual in the eye-or not; whether one reads what one means overtly or talks around the subject; how close the people stand to each other when they are talkingall of these and many more are rules of politeness which differ from culture to culture. Ting-Toomeys third factor is emotional constraints. Different cultures regulate the showing of emotion differently. Some cultures get very excited when they are deliberating an issue. They cry, they scream, they demonstrate their anger, awe, frustration, and other feelings openly. Other cultures try to hold their emotions hidden, exhibiting or sharing only the rational or factual aspects of the situation. All of these conflicts tend to lead to communication problems. If the masses involved are not cognizant of the potential for such problems, they are even more likely to fall victim to them, although it needs more than awareness to defeat these problems and communicate effectively across cultures. Legislation exists to protect the rights of individuals and promote equality of opportunity for all. As a career, being aware of my rights and those of the people I would care for can help both of us get fair access to things that most people take for granted. This could be public transport, paid employment and health services. In order to prevent discrimination or harassment because of their age, disability or caring role, or for other reasons such as race, sex or sexual orientation the Equality Act was introduced in 2010, strengthens the law in certain situations, including increased protection for disabled people, and new measures protecting the careers of elderly or disabled people. The Data Protection Act 1998 establishes a framework of rights and obligations which are planned to safeguard personal information. This framework balances the legitimate needs of organizations to accumulate and utilize personal data for business and other purposes against the right of individuals to respect for the secrecy of their personal details. The legislation itself is supported by a circle of eight principles, which induce to be complied with. The exemptions either allow for the disclosure of information where there would otherwise be a breach of the Act or allow information to be withheld that would otherwise need to be exposed. Apart from these legislations, Charters such as CQC, Voices into Action, Department of Health Information Charter provide many important knowledge and information in a variety of topics such as public health, social care, national health services in order to communicate to the mass public where information can be passed on a large scale. Codes of practise such as Health and Care Professions Council Standards of Proficiency for Social Workers would ensure that right actions has been taken in order to protect and comply with registration requirements. So, health and adult social care registered providers will have to show that they meet the regulation of different codes to minimise spreading of diseases or infections. When it comes for communications, processes and procedures as of utmost importance for the clear flow of communication among internal as well as external parties involved.In a health and social care context, according to the staff role, responsibilities should be divided and each one shoul take accountability for their own actions.And data protection is essential to protect the confidentiality f the client and this are further strengthened by acts such as the data protection act.According to job role, working instructions should be given to the workers.Policies such as equal opportunites would be needed to help health and social care workers to develop and advance in career while other policies such as safeguarding, anti-bullying would safe guard employees against discrimination and protect them from health and safety issues. In order to improve, there should be reflective practice among all individuals working within the health and social care environment.Special attention should be given towards looking after patients where if client-centred care is developed, this would bring in growth to business.Oranizations should also consider staff development where rewarding and remuneration, career development and staff recognition programmes can increase motivation and lead to more productivity and efficiency of care workers.Collaborative working enviornments should be created where skills and knowledge can be exchanged and information passed out for mass public.And compliance with legislation and policies would improve quality of the services provided while protecting both sides such as the workers and their clients. L3.Be able to explore the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in health and social care 3.1 Access and use standard ICT software packages to support work in health and social care 3.2 Analyse the benefits of using ICT in health and social care for users of services, care workers and care organisations. 3.3 Analyse how legal considerations in the use of ICT impact on health and social care. ICTs can be defined as tools that facilitate communication and the processing and transmission of information and the sharing of knowledge by electronic means. This encompasses the full range of electronic digital and analog ICTs, from radio and television to telephones (fixed and mobile), computers, electronic-based media such as digital text and audio-video recording, and the Internet, but excludes the non ¬electronic technologies.In recent years, health and social work practice has adapted to include new forms of recording and monitoring – including the use of information and communication technologies (ICT’s) and the usage of different softwares in order to increase productivity and efficiency of the workers.Softwares such as MS office is used in creating Powerpoint presentations that will be used in teaching as well as managerial backgrounds, word processing softwares in drafting legal documents, and excel in maintaining customer and client data bases. When considering how these ICT packages are used in a health and social care context,they are used in a variety of ways. In, Medical, health, and healthcare informatics, these are used as skills and tools which enable information to be collected, managed, used and shared to support the delivery of healthcare and to promote health (NHS, 2006). On E-health, the utilization of emerging information and communication technology and software packages, especially the Internet, to improve or enable health and healthcare (Eng, 2001). This has bridged both the clinical and non-clinical sectors and includes equally individual and population health-oriented creatures. And finally the health system where these are used in all activities whose primary purpose is to promote, restore or maintain health. This includes, but is not limited to, the preventive, curative and palliative health services provided by the health care system (WHO, 2000). ICTs have clearly made an impact on health care. They have Improved dissemination of public health information and facilitated public discourse and dialogue around major public health threats while enabling remote consultation, diagnosis and treatment through telemedicine. Facilitated collaboration and cooperation among health workers, including sharing of learning and training approaches are supporting more effective health research and the dissemination and access to research findings which have strengthened the ability to monitor the incidence of public health threats and respond in a more timely and effective manner while also improving the efficiency of administrative systems in health care facilities. A wide range of stakeholders within the health and social care industry are benefited, in the developing world are potential beneficiaries of ICTs. They are from a top level to a grass root level giving out services to the public .They include International agencies (WHO, UNAIDS), International NGOs, Government ministries, Provincial hospitals and health departments, health workers, doctors, community leaders, patients and citizens. According to WHO, the use of ICTs in health is not merely about technology (Dzenowagis, 2005), but a means to reach a series of desired outcomes, such as health workers making better treatment decisions and hospitals providing higher quality and safer care. People now can make informed choices about their own health and due to this government also becoming more responsive to health needs where national and local information systems supporting the development of effective, efficient and equitable health systems help policy makers and the public awareness of health risks. And this has made people have the information and knowledge they need for better health. But when considering how legal legislations are impacting the usage of ICT. I belive they do more good than harm . With so many people using computers today, and with many of the computers connected to the internet, many users worry that others will misuse their computers and, e.g. steal their data to commit fraud. The Data Protection Act aims to protect the rights of the owners of the data. It does not actually protect the data. The Act sets out rules on how the data should be stored and used and provides a means for the owners of the data to complain and sometimes to claim compensation if their data is misused.This gives privacy for people involved in health and social care sector as patient information, client information can be protected from going nto wrong hands. Almost everyone, not just all employees and employers, have a duty under the Health and Safety at Work Acts to work and behave safely; also the Act makes it illegal to act recklessly or intentionally act in such a way as to endanger yourself or others. Employees must take reasonable care for their  own and others safety and cooperate with their employers in doing so.Ass unless proper precautions are taken place, injuries can occour which can have huge impacts. Injuries such as Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) are common and are caused by the repetitive clicking of the buttons of a mouse or a keyboard and shows itself as pain in the arms. It is not certain that RSI or CTS are actually caused by repetitive actions when using computers, but these actions do seem to make the conditions worse. Aside from this Headaches are frequently induced by troubles with vision, Neck or back pain may be linked with incorrect postures or Eyestrain or sore eyes may be induced by using computers for long periods. But not only these, using computers can also have physical harm if we are not sensible and under the statute laws of health and social care, cautions are taken place in creating awareness ad reducing these kind of situations among employees, patients and other involved parties an thanks t proper legislations this is a success.